There are many factors that influence the performance of a WiFi network, but you would be hard-pressed to find one that’s as easy to change and has such a big impact as your WiFi channel. Changing it is a matter of a simple click, and you’ll be glad you took the time to make it.
WiFi channels are grouped under specific WiFi frequency bands depending on their frequency. The table below provides a quick summary of the most common bands in use today.
|Lower Frequency||Upper Frequency||Description|
|2,400 MHz||2,500 MHz||The 2.4 GHz band is supported by virtually all WiFi routers today. Because of how widely used the 2.4 GHz band is, it’s easy to encounter issues with signal interference, making it that much more important to use the right channel. It also doesn’t help that the band gives users a fairly small number of channels to choose from, with most channels overlapping (see the next chapter of this article).|
|5,725 MHz||5,875 MHz||The 5 GHz band was introduced in 1999, but it wasn’t until 2014 and the release of the 802.11ac amendment to the IEEE 802.11 wireless local network specifications before it really took off. Because this band is sub-divided into many more channels than the 2.4 GHz band, signal interference is rarely a problem. What can be a problem is the fact that 5 GHz signals don’t travel as far as 2.4 GHz signals, especially when there are solid obstacles in the way.|
|5,925 MHz||7,125 MHz||The 6 GHz WiFi band was introduced in 2020 as a way to provide additional bandwidth and reduce congestion in the crowded 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands. The band is supported by the Wi-Fi 6E standard for wireless local-area networks (802.11ax-2000). Thanks to its wide channels, it allows for faster data transfer speeds and more efficient connections, making it ideal for applications such as streaming high-definition video and online gaming.|
The 2.4 GHz band has 14 channels, but some countries don’t allow them all. In Europe, only channels 1 to 13 are available. In North America, channels 12, 13 are allowed only under low power conditions, and channel 14 isn’t allowed at all.
The channels are spaced 5 MHz apart from each other. The only exception is channel 14 , which has a 12 MHz space before it.
In your router's settings there are channel settings. Most routers have channel settings set to "Auto", but if you look through the list, there are at least a dozen of WLAN channels. So how do you know which WiFi channels are faster than the others in that list? Choosing the proper WiFi channel can vastly improve your WiFi coverage and performance. But even if you find the fastest channel there it doesn't always mean you should select it right away.
Various frequency bands (2.4GHz, 3.6 GHz, 4.9 GHz, 5 GHz, and 5.9 GHz) have their own range of channels. Usually routers will use the 2.4GHz band with a total of 14 channels, however in reality it may be 13 or even less that are used around the world.
All Wi-Fi versions through 802.11n (a, b, g, n) work between the channel frequencies of 2400 and 2500 MHz. These 100 MHz in between are split in 14 channels 20 MHz each. As a result, each 2.4GHz channel overlaps with two to four other channels (see diagram above). Overlapping makes wireless network throughput quite poor.
Most popular channels for 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi are 1, 6, and 11, because they don’t overlap with one another. You should always try using channels 1, 6, or 11 when on a non-MIMO setup (i.e. 802.11 a, b, or g). The table below lists all 11 Wi-Fi channels that are available in North America and specifies the exact frequency range of each:
|Channel number||Bottom of channel||Center frequency||Top of channel|
As said above every wireless channel on the 2.4 GHz spectrum is 20 MHz wide. When using 802.11n with 20 MHz channels, choose the 1, 6, and 11 ones. If going to use 40MHz channels, take into consideration that the airwaves may be congested, unless you live in a house in the middle of a very large property.
The whole spectrum is 100 MHz wide and the channel centers are separated by 5 MHz only. This leaves no choice to eleven channels but to overlap.
Channels 1, 6, and 11 are your best choice for the highest throughput and minimal interference because they don’t overlap with one another—that’s why they’re called non-overlapping.
However, they still overlap with their neighboring channels. For example, Channel 1 overlaps with channels 2, 3, 4, and 5. You can use a WiFi analyzer to scan WiFi channels and determine which of the three non-overlapping channels are the least likely to suffer from signal interference.
A WiFi channel scanner can also tell you which of the three non-overlapping channels is used by the smallest number of WiFi routers. The best WiFi channel scanners can even determine how strong the interference emitted by individual WiFi routers is.
In situations where all of the three non-overlapping WiFi channels are crowded, you should switch to the 5 GHz band. Not only is this band used much less frequently than the 2.4 GHz band, but there are also far more 5 GHz channels to choose from.
You don’t even need to manually select the best 5 GHz channel because most WiFi routers can do it automatically for you, which can’t be said about the selection of the best 2.4 GHz channel.
The 5 GHz (802.11n and 802.11ac) band actually offers way more free space at the higher frequencies. It offers 23 non-overlapping 20MHz channels.
Starting with 802.11n and going to 802.11ac, wireless technology became much more advanced. If you bought a WiFi router within the last couple of years, then you probably have a decent 802.11n or 802.11ac router. Most of them have a hardware inside that automatically selects the proper WiFi channel and adjusts the output power thus boosting throughput and cutting down the interference.
5 GHz channel band compatibility:
Using the 5GHz band and having decently thick walls as well as the general lacking of 5GHz devices usually means that there is a very little interference in your space. In cases like this you may benefit from using the 40, 80, and 160MHz channels.
Ideally, as everyone gradually upgrades their hardware and starts using 5GHz band, having to select the proper WiFi channel will become obsolete. It is especially applicable to MIMO setups (up to eight in 802.11ac), when it is a better idea to let your router do its own thing. Of course there will be custom cases like fine-tuning the channel selection for your router.
Eventually, even the 5GHz will fill up, but by the time it happens we should be able to figure higher WiFi channel frequencies out. Or maybe entirely new antenna designs will be created for the high-end demands of wireless networking world.
In addition to the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands, WiFi users can now take advantage of the 6 GHz channel band, which was made available for unlicensed use by the FCC in 2020, creating lots of excitement across the entire WiFi ecosystem.
The 6 GHz WiFi band represents the portion of the radio spectrum that extends from 5.925 GHz to 7.125 GHz. As such, the 6 GHz WiFi spectrum provides additional 1,200 MHz of uncongested bandwidth as the image below illustrates.
The 6 GHz WiFi band is split into 109 channels to support many simultaneously connected devices, and it supports channel bonding for the creation of the following wide and superwide channels:
These wide and superwide channels can support Gigabit speeds and ensure extremely low latency, making them perfect for 4K and 8K streaming and other demanding applications.
Rather confusingly, the 6 GHz channel isn’t supported by WiFi 6 (802.11ax-2019). Instead, support for the standard was introduced only with the release of the WiFi 6E (802.11ax-2020) standard.
Besides 6 GHz WiFi channels, WiFi 6E also supports channels in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands, making it the most versatile WiFi generation to date.
The 5 GHz WiFi frequency band has been available much longer than the 6 GHz frequency band. It was first introduced with the release of the 802.11a in 1999. Since then, it was included in 802.11n, 802.11ac, and 802.11ax.
The 5 GHz band offers 23 non-overlapping 20 MHz channels, so less than half compared with the 6 GHz band. Its maximum data transmission rate also isn’t as impressive as the maximum transmission rate of the 6 GHz band (around 7 Gbps vs 9.6 Gbps).
If you own a fairly modern Wi-Fi router, there’s a good chance that it supports all three channel bands: 2.4 GHz, 5GHz, and 6 GHz.
Because support for the 2.4 GHz band precedes the 5 GHz band, and 5 GHz precedes the 6 GHz band, you might come to the conclusion that the 6 GHz band is always better. In reality, all three bands have their pros and cons that you should be aware of to know which one to use.
In general, higher frequencies have a harder time penetrating solid objects, such as walls and trees, which is why the 5 GHz and 6 GHz bands are not great for broadcasting data across long ranges.
The good news is that modern WiFi routers can readily use both the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz channel band at the same time, giving you the best of both worlds. Such routers are called “dual-band”, and they are well worth their higher price.
There are even “tri-band” routers, which broadcast one signal in the 2.4 GHz band and two signals in the 5 GHz band. Tri-band routers tend to be very expensive, but they are indispensable in highly congested areas, such as city centers.
If you can’t use multiple channel bands at the same time, we recommend you test bands independently and choose the one which allows you to achieve higher data transfer speeds and lower latency.
Some WiFi generations support only the 2.4 GHz or the 5 GHz band, some support both, and WiFi 6E supports all three:
|WiFi Generation||IEEE Standard||Adopted||Radio Frequency|
|Wi‑Fi 6E||802.11ax||2020||2.4/5/6 GHz|
|Wi‑Fi 6||802.11ax||2019||2.4/5 GHz|
|Wi‑Fi 5||802.11ac||2014||5 GHz|
|Wi‑Fi 4||802.11n||2008||2.4/5 GHz|
|(Wi-Fi 3)||802.11g||2003||2.4 GHz|
|(Wi-Fi 2)||802.11a||1999||5 GHz|
|(Wi-Fi 1)||802.11b||1999||2.4 GHz|
|(Wi-Fi 0)||802.11||1997||2.4 GHz|
As a home user, you’re currently unlikely to encounter any other WiFi bands besides 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz, but that doesn’t mean they don’t exist.
The 802.11af standard allows WiFi signals to be transmitted in TV white space spectrum in the VHF and UHF bands (between 54 and 790 MHz).
There’s also the 802.11ad standard, which can transmit signals at a frequency of 60 GHz. With this standards, it’s possible to achieve multi-gigabit speeds without wires.
All Wi-Fi connections can be negatively affected by electromagnetic interference, also called radio-frequency interference, which happens for three main reasons:
In networks where devices take turns to talk, it takes time for each of them to wait for their turn. Therefore, the more devices the longer the wait time. This type of Wi-Fi interference isn’t actually electromagnetic interference. Instead, it’s a result of Wi-Fi routers doing their best to give one another room to transmit data.
Think back to when you were in elementary school and your teacher asked the whole class a question. The chances are that multiple kids started shouting at once and nobody could hear anything properly. That’s basically what co-channel interference is, which is why Wi-Fi routers take turns and politely wait for one another to finish.
Adjacent-channel interference happens when clients on overlapping channels talk at the same time. Wi-Fi channel selection is crucial in cases like this. Such channel-related interferences can be cut down or excluded by choosing the proper Wi-Fi channel for your network.
NetSpot can help you reveal which Wi-Fi channels are cluttered the most so you can avoid them and use other channels instead, preferably channels 1, 6, or 11 because these three channels are non-overlapping. Fortunately, modern Wi-Fi routers are able to cope with adjacent-channel interference much better than older routers, many of which default to the same Wi-Fi channel.
In addition to Wi-Fi routers, there are many other electronic devices that can interfere with the 2.4 GHz band. Some interfere with it because they use it to wirelessly transmit data, such as security cameras, Bluetooth devices, baby monitors, and smartphones, while others interfere with it because they emit a large amount of electromagnetic radiation, such as microwaves and other appliances.
To avoid non-Wi-Fi interference, it’s important to place your Wi-Fi router far away from all sources of electromagnetic radiation, preferably also away from solid objects, including walls, large pieces of furniture, and so on.
A WiFi channel scanner like NetSpot helps you see through the network and choose the proper channel or reduce WiFi interference. Using NetSpot channel scanner will help you improve your 2.4 GHz WiFi network performance.
After learning so much useful information about WiFi channels, you’re probably anxious to find the best WiFi channel in your area and configure your router to use it so that you can enjoy a faster and more stable connection to the internet.
In this section, we provide step-by-step instructions on how you can do just that on every major platform. Here’s how to find the best WiFi channel on Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, and iOS.
Windows provides a native way of finding the best WiFi channel, but it relies on a rather unintuitive command-line application, called netsh. This application is included with all versions of Windows starting from Windows 2000, and its main purpose is to allow local or remote configuration of network devices such as the interface.
Here’s how to use netsh as a wireless channel scanner for Windows:
Needles to say, using netsh as a WiFi channel scanner for Windows is slow and cumbersome. Fortunately, more convenient WiFi channel scanner Windows apps do exist, and NetSpot is the one we recommend to all home users and professionals alike because of its intuitive user interface and impressive capabilities.
To find the best WiFi channel with NetSpot on Windows:
As you can see, NetSpot is much simpler to use than netsh, and it offers considerably more features that make troubleshooting WiFi issues a breeze.
NetSpot can also display a channel overlap graph that clearly shows which networks are overlapping:
macOS comes with a built-in WiFi channel scanner, and you can access it by clicking the WiFi network icon in the menu bar and selecting the Open Wireless Diagnostics option. Don’t pay attention to the prompts and, instead, click Window > Scan in the Title Bar.
You should see a list of all WiFi networks available in your local area. To obtain the most accurate results, click the Scan Now button in the bottom-right corner to refresh the list. The left pane displays a convenient summary of the scan results, including the best WiFi channels.
Alternatively, you can use a third-party WiFi analyzer app like NetSpot and make your life a bit easier while obtaining more comprehensive results. With NetSpot, finding the most suitable WiFi channel is a matter of a few simple clicks, and you don’t even need to spend any money because you can use NetSpot’s powerful Discover mode for free.
Follow the steps below to use NetSpot as your Mac WiFi channel scanner:
NetSpot wireless channel scanner Mac app can also visualize WiFi channel distribution, allowing you to see at a glance which channels are used the most by selected WiFi networks.
To visualize WiFi channel distribution with NetSpot, select each WiFi network you want to plot on a graph and click Details in the bottom-left corner of the main window.
Finally, switch to the Channels 2,4 GHz tab.
These and other features make NetSpot the best Mac WiFi channel scanner available.
If you’re using a popular Linux distribution like Ubuntu, you don’t need to install a third-party WiFi channel scanner to find the best WiFi channel in your area. You can just use a command-line utility called iwlist, whose purpose is to display useful information from a wireless network interface, such as the WiFi card in your laptop or the USB WiFi dongle connected to your desktop computer.
Follow these steps to find the best WiFi channel using iwlist:
Make sure to replace wlan0 with the interface specified after running the “ip link” command (such as wlp3s0).
Unfortunately, the Android operating system doesn’t let you see which channel a WiFi network uses, so it’s impossible to determine which WiFi channels are suitable and which are not without a third-party WiFi channel scanner app.
There are several WiFi channel scanner apps for Android that helps find the best WiFi channel using a smartphone or tablet, but we recommend the Android version of NetSpot because you can download it for free directly from Google Play Store to see important WiFi parameters, including WiFi channels, in real-time. NetSpot for Android is just as easy to use as its desktop counterpart, and it supports both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz channel bands.
To find the best WiFi channel using NetSpot for Android:
To find the best WiFi channel using NetSpot for Android:
By swiping the graph from right to left, you can switch from the 2.4 GHz to the 5 GHz band. NetSpot’s simplicity is just one of many things that make it the best WiFi channel scanner for Android. You can exclude a certain channel from the comparison by tapping the small checkbox next to it.
Not many iPhone and iPad users know that AirPort Utility, whose purpose is to manage WiFi network and AirPort base stations, contains a fairly capable WiFi scanner that you can use to discover the best WiFi channel available in your area.
This is how to activate and use it:
While AirPort Utility does get the job done when used as an iOS WFi channel analyzer, there are more capable and more convenient WiFi channel scanners for iOS out there. Perhaps the best example is NetSpot, which is available from the App Store and designed to work with the WiPry 2500x dual-band spectrum analyzer (2.4 & 5 GHz).
Here are the steps you need to follow to use NetSpot WiFi channel analyzer on iPhone:
In addition to making it easy to find the best WiFi channel, NetSpot iPhone WiFi channel scanner also has a built-in internet speed test feature that you can use to verify if you’re getting the download and upload speeds that you were promised by your ISP when you first signed up.
To change WiFi channel, you first need to enter its admin interface. This is usually done by entering a specific IP address in your web browser (it should be printed on the bottom of your router), but some newer routers come with a companion smartphone app.
The IP address should take you to the login page to your router’s admin interface. Unless you’ve changed the default login name and password to something else, you should be able to log in by entering “admin” as both the username and password. If it doesn’t work, consult the manual that came with your router or get in touch with the manufacturer directly.
Once you’re inside the admin interface, you need to find the WiFi channel setting so that you can change it to your preferred channel. Because all routers are different, we can’t give you detailed instructions here, but it should be located under Wireless Settings or Advanced Settings.
After you’ve changed the WiFi channel, the only thing left to do is to restart your router. As you can see, learning how to change a WiFi channel on your router is easy, and the whole process takes just a few minutes.
As explained in this article, channel overlapping leads to co-channel interference, which can dramatically degrade WiFi performance and cause annoying slowdowns and other issues. Without a WiFi analyzer like NetSpot, it can be very difficult and tedious to solve issues created by channel overlapping and determine which WiFi channel would be more suitable.
The good news is that co-channel interference can be easily eliminated by proper WiFi channel planning. NetSpot is very good at visualizing the networks to help you make the right decision. With NetSpot's visualization you will immediately see the cause of the wireless issues and how to eliminate them.
You can get the recommendation on which channel to use and the best thing about it — you don't have to be a WiFi professional to choose the optimal channel for your network. All you need to do is just open NetSpot app and click Discover. Click the "Channels 2.4 GHz" header to see where Wi-Fi channels are overlapping. Look for the channel (out of 1, 6 and 11) with the least number of networks present on it.
The “Show average value for inactive networks” option is enabled by default in NetSpot, which means you'll see even currently inactive networks and their average values. You can disable this option when you don't need the data for currently inactive networks. The active networks are shown in solid lines on the graph.
In the above graph the selected network is operating on channel 5, and overlaps with channels 2 and 8. You can see that channels 6 to 9 have the smallest number of networks and overlapping is not that bad at all. So in this particular case if you need the best WiFi channel, choose from channels 6 to 9.
The best WiFi channel scanner and analyzer is easy to use, it supports both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz channel bands, and delivers accurate data in real-time. When choosing a WiFi analyzer, you need to make sure that it supports your operating system and offers all the features you need to solve all kinds of WiFi-related issues. We could recommend you NetSpot for macOS, Windows, and Android.
Channels 1, 6, and 11 are the best channels for WiFi in the 2.4 GHz band because they are the only non-overlapping channels available. Follow our best practices for WiFi channel planning .
You can easily analyze WiFi channels using a free WiFi channel analyzer app, like NetSpot, for Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, or iOS.
The purpose of a WiFi channel analyzer is to gather as much information about surrounding WiFi networks as possible to help you troubleshoot WiFi-related problems and improve the performance of your network.
UNII-1 channels (36, 40, 44, 48) are often considered to be the best 5 GHz channels for home use, but most 5 GHz routers are capable of automatically selecting the best channel.
All WiFi channels are more than capable of providing the maximum data transfer rate your router is capable of achieving, but only if they are not too crowded. That’s why it’s important to use a WiFi analyzer to determine which WiFi channel is utilized the least and thus likely the fastest.
Both 20 and 40 MHz channels have their pros and cons. Because 20 MHz channels are narrower, they don’t suffer from as much interference as wide 40 MHz channels. On the other hand, 40 MHz channels allow for greater speed and faster transfer rates.
Finding the most suitable WiFi channel can improve your wireless experience tremendously. But it's not just the speed you should be looking at, the overlapping is an important factor as well. The most popular WiFi channels for 2.4 GHz frequency are 1, 6, and 11, because they don’t overlap with each other. Use these channels with a non-MIMO setup (i.e. 802.11 a, b, or g).
The three main reasons for wireless interference are:
Starting with the 802.11n standard, wireless technology became very advanced. If you purchased your router within the last couple of years, chances are you have either a 802.11n or 802.11ac one.
The 5 GHz band offered with these specifications provides lots of free space at the higher frequencies — 23 non-overlapping 20MHz channels — and the router will choose the best wireless channel for your connection automatically. Using the 5GHz band in a space with thick walls usually means very little WiFi interference.
There are two frequency bands that you can choose from: 2.4 GHz and 5GHz. Newer routers support both of these bands and it's up to you to decide which one works better for your connection. The 2.4 GHz band goes longer distances, but transmits data slower. The 5 GHz band coverage doesn't travel far, but is very fast and can penetrate obstacles better than 2.4 GHz.
NetSpot can visualize your network coverage to help you see the possible reasons for any wireless issues. NetSpot can also help you choose the best channel for your network. Simply open the NetSpot app and click Discover; then click the "Channels 2.4 GHz" header to see where Wi-Fi channels are overlapping. Look for the channel (out of 1, 6 and 11) with the least number of networks using it.
You can easily scan for WiFi channels using a wireless channel scanner like NetSpot. NetSpot can scan WiFi channels in the 2.4 GHz and the 5 GHz band, giving you a comprehensive overview of all wireless activity in your area.
There are three non-overlapping channels in the 2.4 GHz frequency band (1, 6, and 11). The best non-overlapping channel is always the one that’s used the least by other wireless networks in your area, and you can determine which channel that is using a WiFi channel analyzer app.
Yes, it does. Using a channel exposed to too much signal interference can dramatically degrade your WiFi experience, causing slowdowns and even connection drops.
There are fewer channels in the 2.4 GHz band than in the 5 GHz band. For this reason, they are more likely to be affected by signal interference.
A channel represents a specific radio frequency range. Because there are multiple channels, WiFi signals can be separated from one another to prevent interference.
The 6 GHz WiFi band provides some advantages over the 5 GHz band, including more bandwidth, support for more concurrent connections, and the fact that it’s less crowded.
The 6 GHz range is a range of frequencies within the wireless spectrum that extends from 5.925 GHz to 7.125 GHz.
Yes, there are already multiple 6 GHz routers, including:
At the moment, not all devices are capable of using the 6 GHz WiFi band, but their number is steadily getting larger. Examples of devices that already support 6 GHz WiFi include the Google Pixel 7/7 Pro, the Samsung Galaxy S21 Ultra, or the ASUS Zenfone 9.